Map for the September 2012 issue of Military History magazine showing the network of star forts (fortifications) throughout France, designed or modified by Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban (Marshal Vauban) military engineer under Louis XIV in 1678–1703. The map also illustrates the major elements of a star fort “trace Italienne” design adopted and improved by Vauban.
Unesco World Heritage Sites
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization designated twelve of Vauban’s fortifications as World Heritage Sites in 2008. www.sites-vauban.org
Maps by Steve Walkowiak, swmaps.com